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Herbal plants and medicinal properties
Botanical Name - Ellettaria Cardamom
Indian Name - Chhoti elaichi
Cardamom is the 'queen of spices'. It is one of the most valued spices in the world. Cardamom grows as the perennial herb with thick, fleshy rhizomes or underground stems shooting leafy roots and with leafy stems. It has very large leaves, white or pale green tree -celled flowers, many-seeded pale green to yellow fruits and triangular brownish-black seeds.
Properties :- The aroma and therapeutic properties of cardamom are due to its volatile oil. Tinctures of cardamom are used chiefly in medicines to relieve flatulence and for strengthening digestion activities.
Botanical Name - Carum carvi
Indian Name - Siya jeera
The caraway plant is a biennial herb usually with a fleshy root and slender, branched stems. It has feather- like leaves like leaves divided into very narrow segments small white flowers. The fruit, when ripe, splits into narrow, elongated carples, which are curved, pointed at the ends and have four longitudinal ridges on the surface. The analysis of caraway seeds shows it to contain appreciable moisture, protein, fat, substantial amount of carvone, is obtained from caraway seeds. This oil is colorless or pale with a strong odour and flavors of the fruit.
Properties :- The caraway seeds, leaves and roots are considered useful in activating the glands, besides increasing the action of the kidneys. It is characterized as an excellent 'house cleaner' for the body. Caraway oil is used in medicine to relieve flatulence.

Botanical Name :- Cassia fistula
Indian Name :- Amaltas
Cassia or purging cassia is one of the most beautiful trees of India. It is a small to medium-sized tree with compound leaves and large , shining , dark green leaflets. It has bright yellow flowers in very large, hanging branches and black or shining dark brown, 50 to 60 cm. long almost cylindrical fruits. The tree is known as Indian Laburnum owing to its resemblance in colour and profusion of flowers with the European Laburnum. The trade name is based on its scientific name but the specific name fistula, which means a shepherd's pipe, refers to the shape of its fruit.
Properties :-All the parts of the tree have medical properties. The fruits are, however most important and are included in the Indian Pharmaceutical codex. Its is commonly used for cold, fever, intestinal disorders, aguesia and skin disorders.
Botanical Name :- Apium graveolens
Indian Name :- Ajmod or Ajwain-ka-patta
Celery is an important salad plant, consisting of the bulbous roots, green leaves and stem. The leaves sprout directly from the fleshy roots. The fruits are small in size, dark brown in colour and have a peculiar flavour when cut open. The seeds are brown in colour. celery has been in cultivation for more than 2,000 years. It was known to the Chinese from the fifth century B.C . In England , it was known as smallage and used in medicines. It is a native of Europe and Asia.
Properties :- Celery which means quick acting ,and presumably refers to its therapeutic properties. The green leaves and stem of the bulbous roots are all extremely rich in active ingredients that make celery an important medical plant. It has a well balanced content of a basic minerals , vitamins and nutrients, besides a good concentration of plant hormones and essential oils that gives celery its strong and characteristic smell. These oils have a specific effect on the regulation of the nervous system with their tranquilizing properties. They are tonic , laxative and stimulant. They correct spasmodic disorders and can be used for aborting unwanted pregnancies.
Botanical Name :-Chichorium intybus
Indian Name :-Kasni
Chicory is a perennial herb with a long tap root. Chicory is a native to the Mediterranean region or possibly eastern India. Chicory has been mentioned as a special skin nourisher by ancient herbalists. A tea made from the pale blue flowers of this plant was said to give glowing skin.
Properties :- Chicory is a tonic herb when taken in moderate quantities . It increases the secretion and discharge of urine. It is also a stimulant and mild laxative . This herb helps the functions of liver and gall bladder. Chicory contains food elements which are constantly needed by the optic system. It is one of the richest source of Vitamin A which is very useful for the eyes. This herb is also used for the treatment of Anemia, Liver complaints, respiratory disorders and Obstructed Menstruation.
Botanical Name :- Cinnamomum zeylanicum
Indian Name :- Dalchini
Cinnamon is an evergreen tree which is small and bushy. Dried leaves of cinnamon, along with its dried inner bark are used all over the as a spice or condiment. The bark of a tree is thick, smooth and light or dark brownish in colour. The inner bark is obtained from carefully selected shoots. Cinnamon tree was known to ancient physicians even before 27 BC. The Chinese used the bark of this tree is a medicine. Cinnamon is a native of Sri Lanka and Asia. An analysis of Cinnamon shows it to consist of moisture, protein, fat, fibre, carbohydrates and ash , iron, sodium, potassium, niacin, Vitamin A and C. Cinnamon also contains an essential oil known as cinnamon oil.
Properties :- Cinnamon leaves are used in the form of powder or decoction. They are stimulant and useful in relieving flatulence and in increasing secretion and discharge of urine. Cinnamon prevents nervous tension, improves complexion and memory. Cinnamon is an effective medicine for common cold. Cinnamon checks nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. It stimulates digestion. Cinnamon serves as a good mouth freshner. It is also useful headache and Acne.
Botanical Name :- Coriandrum sativum
Indian Name :- Dhania
Coriander is both an annual and perennial herb. It is erect , sweet smelling and grows up to 20 cms in length with many branches. The stem is feeble, smooth and light green in colour. Leaves are compound, thin, and easily breakable. They have a sweet fragrance.
Properties:- The leaves of coriander are stimulant and tonic. they strengthen the stomach and promote its action, relieve flatulence, increase secretion and discharge of urine and reduce fever.
Botanical Name :- Cuminum cyminum
Indian Name :- Jeera
Cumin is an annual herb with a smooth surface and long slender root. It grows up to the height of 356 to 40 cm.
It produces a stem with many branches. The dried seed forms an essential ingredient of curry powder. Cumin is a native of Egypt, Syria, Turkey and the Eastern Mediterranean region. It was one of the common spices used in the middle ages. The analysis of cumin seeds shows them to consist of moisture 6.2 %, protein 17.7% , fat 23.8 % , fibre 9.1% , carbohydrates 35.5 and mineral matter 7.7% per 100 gms. Their minerals and vitamin contains are calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium , Vitamins C & vitamin A.
Properties :- The fruit is a rich source of thymol. Thymol is used as an anthelmintic against hookworm infections and also as an antiseptic in many proporietary preparations. It is a stimulant, which increases the secretion and discharge of urine and relieves flatulence.

Botanical Name :- Murraya koenigi
Indian Name :- Curry patta
Curry leaves are derived from beautiful, aromatic and more or less deciduous shrub growing up to 0.9 metres, or a small downy tree, up 6 meters in height and 15 to 40 cms. in diameter. The leave are slightly bitter and aromatic. The curry tree is a native of India and Sri Lanka. Their minerals and vitamin contents are calcium ,phosphorus, iron, nicotinic acid and Vitamin C. Fresh leaves on steam distillation under pressure yield a volatile
Properties :- Curry leaves possess the qualities of a herbal tonic . they strengthen the functions of stomach and promote its action. They are also used as a mild laxative. The leaves may be taken mixed with other mild tasting herbs. It is used for digestive disorders, diabetes, burns & bruises, eye disorders, insect bites etc.